RADEK (Sobelsohn), KARL


RADEK (Sobelsohn), KARL
RADEK (Sobelsohn), KARL (1885–1939?), Russian revolutionary and publicist. Born in Lemberg, Radek was a member of the Polish Social Democratic Party, for which he wrote many articles. Before World War I he was also active as a publicist for the left wing of the German Social Democratic Party. During the war he played a prominent part in the Zimmerwald and Kintal pacifist conferences. After the Russian Revolution broke out in February 1917, Radek was one of those who accompanied Lenin on his famous journey from Switzerland through Germany to Sweden in a sealed railroad car. He remained in Sweden as a representative of the Bolshevik Party, but after the October Revolution he returned to Russia and became head of the Central European section of the Foreign Affairs Commissariat. In 1918, when revolution broke out in Germany, Radek entered the country secretly and helped to organize the first congress of the German Communist Party. In 1920 he proposed and supported the idea of a "united front" of the German Communists and Social Democrats. He was arrested in February 1919 but was released at the end of the year. He was one of the leaders of the group which opposed the Brest-Litovsk agreement with Germany. He returned to the U.S.S.R. and in 1922 became a leading official of the Communist International. In this capacity he maintained contact with communist-oriented Zionists of the "left Po'alei Zion\>\> faction" who applied for admission into and recognition by the Communist International. In 1924, however, he joined the Trotskyite opposition and in 1927 was expelled from the party and banished to the Ural mountains. He was readmitted in 1930 on renouncing his adherence to the Trotskyists. Just before his banishment he had served for a year as rector of the Sun Yat-Sen University for Chinese students in Moscow. In the 1930s Radek was an influential writer and speaker on international affairs and was a regular contributor to Pravda and Izvestia. He was the coauthor of the draft of the so-called "Stalin constitution" of the U.S.S.R. (1936). Radek's writings include In den Reihen der deutschen Revolution 19091919 (1921) and many articles on literature and the theater. In 1937 Radek was arrested and charged with complicity in plots against the Soviet government. At a show trial which received worldwide publicity, with the prisoners compelled to make dramatic and abject confessions, he was convicted of being "an enemy of the people" and was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment. On May 19, 1939, he was killed by criminal prisoners in the prison, probably by the order of the leadership. In 1988 he was rehabilitated by the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. A selection of his works, Portraits and Pamphlets, appeared in 1935. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. Schapiro, The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1960), index; E.H. Carr, The Bolshevik Revolution 19171923, 3 (1966), index; idem, Socialism in One Country, 3, Pt. 2 (1964), index; D. Collard, Soviet Justice and the Trial of Radek and Others (1937); R. Conquest, Great Terror (1968), index.

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Radek (Sobelsohn), Karl — (1885 1939)    Russian revolutionary. Born in Lwow, he joined the Polish social democratic party prior to World War I. He later settled in Switzerland where he was a friend of Lenin. At the outbreak of the Russian Revolution, he went to Sweden… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Sobelsohn, Karl — vero nome di Radek, Karl Bernhardovič …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

  • Karl Radek — Karl Berngardovich Radek (October 31, 1885 May 19, 1939) was a socialist active in the Polish and German movements before World War I and an international Communist leader after the Russian Revolution.LifeHe was born in Lemberg, Austria Hungary… …   Wikipedia

  • Radek, Karl Bernhardovič — soprannome di Sobelsohn, Karl …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

  • Karl Radek — dans la Grande encyclopédie soviétique, édition de 1930 Karl Berngardovitch Radek (en russe : Карл Бернгардович Радек ; 31 octobre 1885 – 19 mai 1939), de son vrai nom Karol Sobelsohn est un révolutionnaire bolchevique, dirigeant du… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Sobelsohn — Karl Radek (Mitte), 1932 Karl Radek (russisch Карл Бернгардович Радек/Karl Berngardowitsch Radek, ursprünglich Karol Sobelsohn; schrieb auch unter den Pseudonymen Parabellum und Struthahn; * 31. Oktober 1885 in Lemberg, Galizien; † vermutlich 19 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Karl Radek — (Mitte), 1932 Karl Radek (russisch Карл Бернгардович Радек/Karl Berngardowitsch Radek, ursprünglich Karol Sobelsohn; schrieb auch unter den Pseudonymen Parabellum und Struthahn; * 31. Oktober 1885 in Lemberg …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Karl Radek — Karl Rádek. Karl Berngárdovich Rádek (31 de octubre de 1885 19 de mayo de 1939) fue un Bolchevique y líder Comunista internacional. Nació en Leópolis, Ucrania, entonces llamada Lemberg (Imperio austrohúngaro). Su famlia era judía. Su nombre… …   Wikipedia Español

  • RADEK (K.) — RADEK KARL SOBELSOHN dit KARL (1885 apr. 1937) Né en Galicie, Radek commence à militer au tournant du siècle dans le mouvement révolutionnaire polonais; ses lectures encyclopédiques et éclectiques le conduisent à se rallier au marxisme. Il se… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Karl Radek — Karl Sobelsohn …   Eponyms, nicknames, and geographical games